Producing a manuscript represents a significant investment on the part of the author. We at J. Ross Publishing fully understand this and are committed to making the production process as smooth as possible for our authors. Among our mutual goals as author and publisher is the production of a publication of the highest quality in the shortest time possible.
The following instructions for preparing your manuscript have been written with that mutual goal in mind, so as to facilitate the job of both the author and the production staff. Please take a few minutes to read them. By following these guidelines, you can help to ensure that your publication moves through the production process quickly—and is available to your audience at the earliest possible date—and that the result of your effort meets the highest standards.
If you have a question at any point during the preparation of your manuscript, please contact our production department. We will be happy to assist you. Please note that we prefer that you contact us as soon as a question arises so that we can eliminate any unnecessary work. We also encourage you to submit sample files for evaluation in order to identify potential problems.
OVERVIEW OF THE PRODUCTION PROCESS
The production process begins when we receive the printout (two copies) and electronic files for your manuscript. This process is designed to streamline the steps in transforming your manuscript into the final printed version while maintaining accuracy and quality.
Each electronic file is reviewed to make sure that it is usable and complete. Although a wide variety of platforms and programs are available, our production department currently works in a Macintosh environment and uses Microsoft Word for word processing and either Adobe InDesign or Quark for page layout. Your manuscript text files should be submitted in Microsoft Word which we will then edit and import into either InDesign or Quark.
The printout of your manuscript (including text, tables, illustrations, and any other elements) is assigned to a copy editor, who reads through it and checks grammar, spelling, punctuation, consistency, and organizational detail. Any corrections indicated by the copy editor are then made in the electronic files you submitted. Typographic and style elements are also addressed in the electronic files.
The finalized word-processing files are then imported into the page layout program. Files for the illustrations, tables, and other elements in your manuscript are incorporated into the page layout at logical points near their discussion in the text.
A printout of the page layout file is generated and sent to you for review. A deadline for completing your review is provided. While you are reviewing your page proofs, we also will be proofreading them. You can indicate your corrections in the margin of the proofs. Please note that major rewriting or reorganization cannot be done at this time without incurring additional costs and delays.
Any questions raised by the copy editor will be noted in the margin of the page proofs. Be sure to respond to each question.
Once the page layout has been created, the index can be compiled, by either you or a professional indexer, depending upon your preference and your contractual agreement with J. Ross Publishing. For additional information, see the section on Preparing the Index.
When we receive your corrected page proofs, we will insert your corrections and those indicated by our proofreader into the page layout files. Those corrections are proofread, the index is typeset, and the files are finalized for printing.
ELECTRONIC FILES AND PRINTOUT
Text files must be prepared in Microsoft Word for either the Macintosh or Windows environment.
Tables must be prepared in Microsoft Word, WordPerfect, or Excel for either the Macintosh or Windows platform.
If your manuscript will include more than 20 equations, please contact our production department immediately to discuss the software requirements. If your manuscript will include fewer than 20 equations, prepare them using the equation editor in your word-processing software.
For information on acceptable formats for illustrations, see the section on Preparing Illustrations.
Our production department will gladly review sample electronic files. Feel free to ask us to do so.
Organization and Naming of Files
Create a separate folder for each chapter. That folder should contain all elements which are part of the chapter and should be named so as to easily identify the content. For example, a folder or directory named Ch03 would include all items for Chapter 3.
Prepare the text for each chapter in an individual file. The name of the file should reflect the content (for example, Ch03.txt).
Prepare each table or illustration in an individual file. Again, the name of the file should reflect the content. If tables or illustrations are numbered consecutively throughout all the chapters, the file name should indicate that the file contains a figure or table and the corresponding number (for example, Fig05 or Tbl25). If tables or illustrations are numbered consecutively within each chapter (that is, each chapter starts with Figure 1 or Table 1), file names should indicate both the chapter number and the table or illustration number (for example, Fig3.07 for Figure 7 in Chapter 3, or Tbl6.09 for Table 9 in Chapter 6). The decimal prefix indicates the chapter number and should be part of the file name even if you will not be using the decimal prefix in the text. This naming convention will help to identify the various elements included in each chapter.
Files can be submitted on a zip drive, CD, or in some cases, through an ftp site or email. Label each CD with your name and the book title. Provide a directory listing the contents of CD or zip drive.
Two complete printouts must be provided along with the electronic files. The printouts should represent the last updated version of the files. If you make a few changes to a file, be sure to reprint that file or appropriate portions thereof. If there are discrepancies between the printout and the corresponding file, we have no way of determining which is the accurate version. Such discrepancies can result in errors and delays.
Print your manuscript on 8.5-by-11-inch paper. Select the double-space option for all text, including reference lists. A single-spaced page does not allow room for the copy editor's notations. Allow a margin of at least one inch on each side.
Label each page of the printout with your name and the page number. Page numbers can run consecutively throughout the manuscript or start over with each chapter. If each chapter begins with page 1, please include the chapter number as part of the labeling information (for example, Page 2-5 or Chapter 2, page 5).
TIPS FOR PREPARING THE TEXT
While most word-processing programs provide a variety of features for formatting, it is best to keep use of these options to a minimum. Keep in mind that the manuscript you are preparing will not represent the final printed product in terms of visual appearance. This means the dimensions, type size, and typeface used in your manuscript will change according to the design of the final page layout. In all likelihood, heavy use of the stylistic or design features in your word-processing program while typing the manuscript will mean that we have to strip out the embedded coding that created those features in order to prepare the page layout according to the design selected for your book.
The following tips will help ensure the smooth progression of your manuscript through the production process.
- Hit "enter" or "return" only at the end of a paragraph or heading. Your word-processing program will "wrap" the text in each paragraph.
- Choose the flush left and double-space options. Do not justify the text in each paragraph and do not select the hyphenation option. If the hyphenation option is selected, cancel it. We will set the hyphenation parameters during final formatting of your manuscript.
- Hit the "tab" key once to indicate a new paragraph. Do not use multiple spaces to indicate the start of a new paragraph.
- After you have completed writing a chapter, and certainly before submitting the final version, it is a good idea to read through it. This will help to minimize changes to the page proofs. Reading over what you have written gives you a fresh perspective and allows you to polish your work.
- Avoid the use of multiple spaces in preparing tabular or columnar material. Hit the "tab" key once to move from column to column. You can set each tab using the ruler in your word-processing program.
- Avoid using all-upper-case letters (except for main headings) or the "caps lock" key. Use of all-upper-case letters often results in retyping when we format your manuscript for page layout.
- Use italic, bold, and bold-italic type as appropriate throughout your manuscript. Avoid underlining. Underlining is usually translated into italic type.
- Do not be concerned about awkward page breaks in your manuscript. We will determine page breaks during the page layout process.
- To prepare a listing, use a bullet, asterisk, number, or letter to identify each new item. Then hit the "tab" key once and type that item. (The automatic list feature does not always translate into page layout programs.)
- Use the symbol font for Greek, mathematical, or technical characters.
- Be sure to distinguish between the number one (1) and the letter el (l), as well as the numeral zero (0) and the letter oh (O). They are not interchangeable on a computer keyboard.
- Type a space before and after an operation sign (+, -, =, x) that is preceded and followed by a number (4 + 5 = 9). For negative and positive numbers, type a space only preceding the symbol (+7, -5).
- Define an acronym or abbreviation at its first use in the text.
- Each table and illustration should be mentioned at the appropriate point in the text. As part of our page design process, tables and illustrations will be placed in the page layout as close as possible to their discussion in the text. Do not place tables or illustrations in your text files. Each should be prepared as a separate file.
- Each individually numbered illustration must have a caption. Do not include the caption in the graphic file. Type the list of figure captions for each chapter at the end of the text file for that chapter. If a figure is being reproduced from previously published material, include a credit line with full information (see also the section on Permissions).
- Each individually numbered table must include a title. Type each table as a separate file. If a table is being reproduced from previously published material, include a credit line with full information (see also the section on Permissions).
- Type all footnotes (additional information to appear at the bottom of a specific page, as opposed to a reference citation) for the text of each chapter at the end of the text file for that chapter. Use a series of asterisks, numbers, or other symbols to identify footnotes. Avoid using the automatic footnote-numbering feature available in many word-processing programs.
- An in-text citation to a reference should be indicated by either a superscript number or by author name and date (in parentheses), depending upon the style you choose. Again, avoid using the automatic footnote-numbering feature available in many word-processing programs.
- The list of references (literature citations) should be printed double spaced, either as a separate chapter (if you compile one reference list for the entire manuscript) or at the end of each chapter (if you compile a reference list for each chapter). In either case, use italic type (not underlining) to indicate the title of a publication. See the section on References for additional information.
- After you have completed writing a chapter, and certainly before submitting the final version, it is a good idea to read through it. This will help to minimize changes to the page proofs. Reading over what you have written gives you a fresh perspective and allows you to polish your work.
- It is a good idea to spell-check each file, and that includes tables and illustrations.
- Try to be as consistent as possible. This will facilitate copy editing and the entire production process.
- Be sure to keep a backup copy of all of your files.
HEADINGS AND TABLE OF CONTENTS
Levels of headings should be clearly differentiated. This can be accomplished by position, typeface, upper and lower case, and labeling. Be consistent throughout the manuscript so that the level of each heading is clear.
Also, prepare a table of contents in which all internal heads are listed; indentation can be used to show relationship among internal heads if they are not labeled.
Headings can be labeled by numbers (decimal style) or a combination of Roman numerals and letters (outline style) or can be unlabeled, depending on what you decide is appropriate for your manuscript. If you plan to refer to other sections at numerous points throughout the text, those cross-references may be less cumbersome if you label the headings. You can then refer to Section 2.3 or Section II.C, as opposed to, for example, the section entitled "Productivity Requirements for Future Operations." In making this decision, you may also want to take into consideration what seems to be the norm for other publications in the field in which you are writing.
A variety of elements are candidates for inclusion in the front matter. (Front matter is basically any material that precedes the first page of actual text.) Some are standard and others are optional, depending upon what you as the author deem appropriate.
- Title page should include the title of the book (even if it is tentative at the time you submit your manuscript) and author(s) name, academic degrees, professional certifications, and affiliation.
- Complete table of contents, including chapter titles and internal headings. Page numbers are optional. (We will add final page numbers after the page layout has been completed.)
- The preface should provide an overview of the book and cover such information as the purpose, content, and scope of the book, as well as the intended audience. Keep in mind that people often look at the preface to decide whether they might be interested in purchasing a book.
- The author biography should consist of two to four paragraphs that describe your educational background, professional experience, current affiliation, area of involvement, awards and honors, and professional accomplishments. Some authors like to include a bit of personal data as well as information on how to contact them.
- For books with contributing authors, a list of contributors with their affiliations and complete addresses.
- Author photograph
- A quotation that you feel relates to the journey on which the reader is about to embark
- A foreword, generally written by a recognized expert other than the author and serving as an endorsement of the book
The purpose of the list of references, or bibliography, is to indicate source material and to allow the reader to easily locate that material.
Two standard conventions are generally used to indicate in-text citations to references: superscript numbers and name/date. If you choose to use superscript numbers, the numbers should be assigned in order of citation in the text and the list of references should be presented in numerical order. The superscript number in the text should appear after any punctuation, whether a period, comma, semicolon, etc. If you use name and date for in-text citations, the information should appear in parentheses at the appropriate point in the text and should precede any punctuation. The list of references should then be presented in alphabetical order by first author's last name.
If you compile one reference list for the entire manuscript, it should be typed as a separate file. If you compile a separate reference list for each chapter, each list should appear at the end of the respective chapter.
Be consistent in formatting the reference list. The information for each citation should appear in a consistent order, with consistent punctuation. This will help to minimize any copy-editing changes that must be made to the electronic files in order to standardize the format of presentation. Use a formatting convention with which you are familiar or which is standard in the field in which you are writing, but be consistent throughout the manuscript.
Provide full information, including author(s) last name and initials, article or chapter title, journal or book title, publisher and location, year of publication, and page or chapter number.
The following samples (not all of which are actual publications) represent only one style of formatting references but provide examples of citations with complete information.
Smith, A.B., Recent trends in management, Manage. J., 25(3), 30-35, 2001.
Smith, A.B. and Jones, C.D., Management Science, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 2000, pp. 101-125.
Smith, A.B., Jones, C.D., and Davis, E.G., Production productivity, in Recent Trends in Management, Vol. 1, 2nd ed., Green, H.I. and Brown, J.K., Eds., Academic Press, New York, 2000, chap. 3.
It is the author's responsibility to obtain permission to reproduce previously published material. Failure to do so is a violation of copyright law.
Permission must be obtained in writing and the completed letter(s) granting permission must be sent to J. Ross Publishing, per our contractual arrangement, when you submit your manuscript. (If you have not received approval from the copyright owner at the time you submit your manuscript, submit a copy of the unsigned request letter to let us know what is still outstanding.) Please indicate on each letter the corresponding material in your manuscript (for example, quotation on page 20, Figure 15, Table 3.2).
To obtain permission, you must contact, in writing, the copyright owner, which is usually the publisher. If a publisher requests that you also obtain permission from the author, you must comply.
We can provide you with a sample generic letter to use in requesting permission. Contact our editorial or production department to obtain a copy.
It is recommended that you begin the process of obtaining permission as early as possible. It is not unusual for requests to take a number of weeks to be processed and may even require several attempts. Starting early will allow you ample time to deal with any problem situations.
What Does and Does Not Require Permission
The following items, if previously published, require written permission to reproduce:
- An illustration, diagram, photograph, or table
- A quotation that consists of 50 words or more (whether taken from a book, magazine, poem, song, etc.)
- A series of quotations that total 400 or more words taken from a single source (whether taken from a book, magazine, poem, song, etc.)
Keep in mind that if you are using previously published material that you originally created, you must obtain permission from the copyright owner, which often is the publisher.
It is the format in which information is presented, not the information itself, that can be copyrighted. Therefore, if you use information from another source to prepare an original illustration or table, permission is not required, although you will want to indicate the source of the information.
However, a question arises when modifying a previously published illustration or table, and the answer is not always clear-cut. If, for example, you use a previously published table but change the order of the columns or modify the column heads, that does not constitute a substantial change and permission must still be obtained and the source indicated. Similarly, if you change letters to numbers or solid lines to dotted lines in an illustration, permission must be obtained and the source acknowledged.
If you are unsure about whether permission may be required, it is best to err on the side of caution and obtain it.
If you have requested permission and have been denied use or have been unable to obtain written approval, you may have to consider deleting that material or identifying an appropriate substitute.
Note that most U.S., Canadian, and British government material is in the public domain and does not require permission. However, many government-sponsored agencies and organizations do copyright their material, in which case it will be necessary to obtain permission to use. Again, it is preferable to err on the side of caution and obtain permission if there is any question.
Credit (Source) Lines
Whenever permission is granted to use previously published material, the source must be acknowledged. For a table, the credit line should appear as a separate paragraph at the end of the table. For an illustration, the credit line should appear at the end of the caption and be enclosed in parentheses. For a quotation, the credit line can appear at the end of the quotation (enclosed in parentheses) or as a footnote.
If you are reproducing material exactly as it appeared in the original source, the credit line should begin with "From," followed by the complete citation. If you have significantly modified material, you can use a variety of terminology ("Based on," "Adapted from," Modified from"), depending upon which is appropriate.
If the letter granting permission requires that you use a specific format for the credit line, please prepare it accordingly.
It is the responsibility of the author to provide all illustrations—whether line drawings (graphs, charts, diagrams, etc.) or photographs—in a usable electronic format. Some authors prefer to tackle this job themselves, and others choose to engage the services of a graphic artist. Factors that influence this decision include time, technical expertise, and complexity of the illustrations.
If you submit artwork that is not in an appropriate electronic format, and J. Ross Publishing must draw it or scan it, any costs incurred will be deducted from royalties.
Illustrations are, as a rule, black and white. Therefore, even though your graphics or scanning program may have color capability, do not use it unless cleared by the Publisher. Any illustrations which will be printed black and white but were created in color will have to be redone.
If your manuscript does require color illustrations, which should be used only when the information cannot be conveyed in black and white, you will need to obtain approval from our editorial department. If the use of color illustrations is approved, you must contact our production department to ensure that the illustrations are prepared in a format appropriate for book printing.
Our requirements for preparing illustrations are designed to produce high-quality illustrations in the final printed version. They are based on ever-evolving technology and requirements in the printing world.
The program of choice for preparing line drawings is Adobe Illustrator. While many other programs are available and many word-processing programs offer graphics capabilities, they are not appropriate for book printing and therefore unacceptable.
Files submitted in .gif, .jpg, or .bmp format are unacceptable.
Photographs must be prepared at the proper resolution (see the section on Size and Resolution directly below) using Adobe Photoshop and saved as tiff (.tif) files.
If you cannot provide photographs at the proper resolution, you must provide glossy prints. We will scan the prints (and deduct the cost from royalties). Photocopies or pages from previously published material are unacceptable.
Size and Resolution
|Book trim size
6 inches (width) by 9 inches (length)
6 1/8 inches (width) by 9 1/4 inches (length)
7 inches (width) by 10 inches (length)
|Maximum size of illustrations
4 5/8 inches (width) by 7 1/8 inches (length)
4 5/8 inches (width) by 7 3/8 inches (length)
5 1/8 inches (width) by 8 1/2 inches (length)
These dimensions apply to all illustrations, whether drawings or photographs.
To accommodate a more intricate or larger illustration, the width and length can be reversed. In that case, the illustration will be turned landscape, or broadside, on the printed page.
Photographs should be scanned using Adobe Photoshop and saved in tiff (.tif) format. The resolution must be a minimum of 266 pixels per inch at 100 percent of the final printed size, which equals 133 dots per inch (or a 133-line screen, the standard for printing).
A photograph must be scanned at the proper resolution. The resolution can only be adjusted manually in Photoshop (under the Image/Image size menu) if the size of the image is adjusted proportionately. Changing the resolution in Photoshop without changing the dimensions of the image will produce a photograph that is not acceptable for printing. For best results, scan photographs at the proper resolution.
Tips for Preparing Illustrations
The following tips will help ensure that your illustrations are reproduced accurately and at the highest quality.
- Do not add type to Photoshop files.
- Do not include the figure caption or acknowledgment of the source in the graphics file.
- Do not include images from web pages because they are low resolution.
- Do not use shading less than 10 percent. A minimum of 15 percent is preferable.
- Use Type 1 Postscript fonts only. Do not use TrueType fonts.
- Most type in illustrations should be 8 point (but can be slightly larger or smaller to emphasize certain portions) when printed at 100 percent (for maximum size of illustrations, see the section on Size and Resolution above).
- Sans serif fonts (such as Helvetica and Arial) are generally used for type in illustrations, although this is not mandatory.
- Send all fonts (both screen and printer) that are used in your illustrations.
- Minimum rule size is .5. Do not use a hairline rule.
- Double-check spelling and numerical data in all illustrations.
- Include all images and art elements that have been placed in an illustration or are incorporated in an illustration.
- Submit a printout of each illustration.
PREPARING THE INDEX
Who Will Prepare the Index
The index is a key feature in providing accessibility to information contained in a book. You must decide whether you will prepare the index for your book or would rather assign that task to a professional indexer (which will be handled by J. Ross Publishing and the cost of which will be deducted from royalties, per our contractual agreement).
If you choose to create the index, keep in mind that it must be prepared from page proofs rather than manuscript pages. While various word-processing programs offer indexing capabilities, the transition to a page layout program is not seamless, which means that an index created from manuscript files may not translate into a page layout program. That can result in duplication of effort. If you are considering using the indexing feature in your word-processing program, you must submit a sample file to our production department to make sure it can be accommodated.
While the author may the best judge of what is important and should be included in the index, many authors choose not to take on the laborious task of compiling the index. If you decide to have the index prepared by a professional indexer, you can still provide direction in terms of what is important to index. When you receive your page proofs, you will be asked to indicate directly on the pages, either by highlighting or writing in the margin, appropriate words, terms, phrases, concepts, etc. for inclusion in the index. The indexer will also read the page proofs to determine entries and then compile, organize, alphabetize, and add page numbers. Your task is greatly simplified in that you are being asked to indicate what is important and merits inclusion; the indexer will use the direction you provide as a guide.
What to Include in the Index
The terms most frequently overlooked in compiling an index are those which are the most obvious entries. Information that identifies the subject and application of each chapter should be included, in addition to specific terminology. Headings can be useful in this regard because they often contain wording that succinctly states the focus of a particular chapter or section. However, including only the headings will not provide a complete index. Specific terms should also be indexed where they appear in the text, tables, illustrations, and captions.
If you decide to have the index prepared by an indexer, you will be asked to highlight terms where they appear in the proofs or to indicate entries in the margin of each page. The following are some guidelines to assist you in this process:
- In identifying key words or phrases, try to determine the terminology a reader would use in searching the index to access information found in the book.
- If the exact wording that should be used in the index does not appear in the text, write the words in the margin next to the discussion in the text.
- Indicate any cross-references that would be helpful by writing "see" or "see also" in the margin.
- Underline or highlight a term to be included as an index entry at its first occurrence on a page. If a term is to be included every time it appears, indicate so at the first occurrence.
- Terms that appear in tables, illustrations, and captions should also be marked for indexing. If an entire column of a table is to be included, this can be indicated in the margin.
- Author names that appear in the text (literature citations) should not be included, unless a landmark work is being discussed.
Finally, any additional guidance you may want to provide will only serve to enhance the value of the index.